شرح Steel

Ahmed El Gehani

عضو جديد
إنضم
25 يناير 2017
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12
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By definition, steel is a combination of iron and carbon. Steel is alloyed with various elements to improve physical properties and to produce special properties such as resistance to corrosion or heat.
Alloy steel refers to a type of steel that is alloyed with various elements. In theory, every steel can be referred to as alloy steel since the simplest steel is iron alloyed with up to 2.06% of carbon. However, the term “alloy steel” commonly refers to steels that are alloyed with elements other than carbon. The total weight of alloying elements can amount up to 50% to give the material improved properties such as better wear protection or ductility. A distinction is made between low-alloyed and high alloyed steels. Low-alloyed steels are characterized by their low amount of alloys, which in summation make up to less than 5%. The amount of elements in high-alloyed steels can be greater or equal 5%, making the material more expensive by
tendency. Aside from those two groups, there are also unalloyed steels which carry an extremely small amount of alloys.
According to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), steel can be broadly categorized into four groups based on their chemical compositions:
1. Carbon Steels
2. Alloy Steels
3. Stainless Steels
4. Tool Steels

Types of Steel can also be classified by a variety of different factors:
1. Composition: Carbon range, Alloy, Stainless.
2. The production method: Continuous cast, Electric furnace, Etc.
3. Finishing method used: Cold Rolled, Hot Rolled, Cold Drawn (Cold Finished), Etc.
4. Form or shape: Bar, Rod, Tube, Pipe, Plate, Sheet, Structural, Etc.
5. De-oxidation process (oxygen removed from steelmaking process): Killed & Semi-Killed Steel, Etc.
6. Microstructure: Ferritic, Pearlitic, Martensitic, Etc.
7. Physical Strength (Per ASTM Standards).
8. Heat Treatment: Annealed, Quenched & Tempered, Etc.
9. Quality Nomenclature: Commercial Quality, Drawing Quality, Pressure Vessel Quality, Etc.b

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