الطاقة الشمسية وانظمة التكيف

md beida

عضو جديد
إنضم
18 أبريل 2011
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464
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51
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من احسن ما طالعة في مجاله يحتوي الكثير الكثير من المفيد ويمتاز بالبساطة وصغر الحجم وأتمنى ان يستفيد منه احد
و
الله المستعان

Solar Air-Conditioning Systems
Focus on components and their working principles
Nathan Rona


Table of contents

1. Introduction...............................................................................1
1.1 General Background............................................................................1
1.2 Report background, aims and coverage............................................2
1.3 Report structure...................................................................................2
1.4 Definitions and concepts.....................................................................3
2. Components..............................................................................4
2.1 Distribution...........................................................................................5
2.1.1 All-air-systems.................................................................................5
2.1.2 Hydronic systems............................................................................6
2.1.3 Decentralized systems....................................................................6
2.2 Processing (Refrigeration and dehumidification)............................8
2.2.1 Mechanical and Electric Heat Pumps............................................8
2.2.1.1 Vapor Compression System....................................................8
2.2.1.2 Stirling cooling........................................................................11
2.2.1.3 Brayton refrigeration cycle ....................................................13
2.2.1.4 Thermoelectric modules.........................................................14
2.2.2 Heat engines.................................................................................16
2.2.2.1 Rankine power cycle..............................................................16
2.2.2.2 Stirling engine........................................................................19
2.2.2.3 Brayton power cycle...............................................................21
2.2.2.4 Thermoelectric generator.......................................................22
2.2.3 Thermal Heat Pumps....................................................................23
2.2.3.1 Carré cycle absorption heat pump.........................................24
2.2.3.2 Diffusion (Platen Munters) absorption cycle...........................39
2.2.3.3 Open absorption cycle ..........................................................42
2.2.3.4 Solid sorption heat pumps.....................................................47
2.2.3.5 Ejector (steam jet) cycle.........................................................51
2.2.4 Evaporative cooling ......................................................................54
2.2.4.1 Direct evaporative cooling......................................................55
2.2.4.2 Indirect evaporative cooling ..................................................56
2.2.4.3 Indirect-direct evaporative cooling .......................................56
2.2.5 Desiccant dehumidification..........................................................57
2.2.5.1 Solid desiccant dehumidification ...........................................57
2.2.5.2 Liquid desiccant dehumidification .........................................59
2.3 Solar energy collection .....................................................................62
2.3.1 PV. (Photovoltaic) cells.................................................................63
2.3.2 Thermal collectors ........................................................................66
2.3.2.1High temperature collectors....................................................71
2.3.2.2 Medium-low temperature Hot water collectors.......................77
2.3.2.3 Medium-low temperature Air collectors..................................88
2.4 Heat rejection......................................................................................89
2.4.1 Air cooled systems........................................................................89
2.4.2 Water cooled systems...................................................................90
2.5 Storage................................................................................................94
2.5.1 Sensible heat storage...................................................................94
2.5.2 Latent heat storage.......................................................................95
2.5.3 Chemical storage..........................................................................95
2.5.4 Electrical storage...........................................................................96
3. Systems...................................................................................97
2.27 Double effect H20/LiBr chiller............................................................................32
2.28 COP as for single-, double.- and triple-effect H2O/LiBr absorption chillers.......33
2.29 GAX-cycle...........................................................................................................34
2.30 Schematic GAX-cycle..........................................................................................35
2.31 Cooling COP for various NH3/H20 cycles.........................................................35
2.32 Temp.-press.-conc. diagram of saturated LiBr-water solutions...........................37
2.33 Platen Munters absorption system.......................................................................39
2.34 Principle of AAAC ..............................................................................................41
2.35 Solar generator open absorption system..............................................................43
2.36 Open generator with spray chamber....................................................................44
2.37 Solar generator with glass covering.....................................................................45
2.38 Schematic description of the difference between absorption and adsorption .....47
2.39 Two chamber adsorption chiller...........................................................................48
2.40 Claperyron diagram for solid sorption cycle........................................................49
2.41 Switching schedule for a 4-bed adsorption chiller over two cycles.....................49
2.42 COP of ad/absorption chiller ...............................................................................50
2.43 Schematic ejector refrigeration cycle...................................................................51
2.44 Cross section of an ejector ..................................................................................51
2.45 COP ejector refrigeration system.........................................................................52
2.46 Multistaged ejectors.............................................................................................53
2.47 Evaporative cooling in Mollier chart...................................................................54
2.48 Spray humidifier...................................................................................................54
2.49 Direct evaporative cooling...................................................................................55
2.50 Indirect evaporative cooling.................................................................................56
2.51 Indirect-direct evaporative cooling......................................................................56
2.52 Schematic diagram of a desiccant wheel..............................................................57
2.53 State changes for dehumidification with desiccant wheel...................................57
2.54 Schematic diagram of a desiccant bed dehumidification system.........................58
2.55 Schematic diagram of a liquid desiccant dehumidifier........................................59
2.56 Liquid desiccant, low flow rate, internally cooled, falling film dehumidifier.....60
2.57 Attenuation of solar radiation as it passes through the atmosphere.....................62
2.58 Principles of a silicon photovoltaic cell...............................................................63
2.59 Solar cell, module and array.................................................................................63
2.60 Tracked PV. Array containing16 panels..............................................................64
2.61 Power output for a tracked and a non tracked array.............................................64
2.62 Principles of concentrating collectors..................................................................64
2.63 Typical efficiency plot (for a flat CPC-collector) resulting from two models.....70
2.64 Schematic heliostat field......................................................................................71
2.65 Solar Two.............................................................................................................71
2.66 Central receivers...................................................................................................72
2.67 Schematic representation of tower-reflector system............................................72
2.68 Cross-sectional drawing of a solar fiber-optic mini-dish.....................................73
2.69 Schematic top view of a glazed module of circular mini-dishes.........................73
2.70 Schematic mini-dishes solar field .......................................................................73
2.71 Schematic dish collector......................................................................................74
2.72 SAIC 20 kW dish Stirling System........................................................................74
2.73 Combined receiver and stirling heat engine.........................................................74
2.74 Schematic parabolic trough collector...................................................................75
2.75 Parabolic trough collectors of different sizes.......................................................75
2.76 Evacuated receiver for the LS2 parabolic trough collector..................................75
2.77 Efficiency of a parabolic trough collector............................................................7
2.78 Schematic (“Dewar-China”)evacuated tube collector ........................................77
2.79 Evacuated tube module with 16 tubes..................................................................77
2.80 Evacuated tubular collectors around 1980...........................................................77
2.81 Schematic drawing of a heat pipe........................................................................78
2.82 Evacuated heat pipe collector construction..........................................................78
2.83 “All-glass-design” evacuated tubular collectors..................................................79
2.84 “Water-in-glass” system.......................................................................................80
2.85 Ray trace diagrams of the tubular CPC collector at three incidence angles.......80
2.86 Tubular collector with diffuse flat white reflector...............................................81
2.87 Top view of the SK-400 high temperature CPC collector...................................81
2.88 Measured efficiencies for two evacuated tubular collectors................................82
2.89 Incident angel modifier for two evacuated tubular collectors..............................82
2.90 Schematic flat plate collector...............................................................................83
2.91 Roof integrated flat plate collectors.....................................................................83
2.92 Common types of absorber plates........................................................................83
2.93 Solar thermal flat collector envisioned for 2010..................................................84
2.94 Cross section of a flat plate CPC collector with honeycomb TIM......................84
2.95 Typical efficiency & incident angel modifier flat plate coll. from 1980 to2010..85
2.96 Measured effi. for a flat plate TIM collector comp. with two evacuated tubular.85
2.97 ICS-collector with TIM and CPC-reflector..........................................................86
2.98 Schematic diagram of a nonconvecting solar pond..............................................87
2.99 Cross sections of typical air collectors.................................................................88
2.100 Air-cooled condenser.........................................................................................89
2.101 Horizontal shell-and-tube condenser..................................................................90
2.102 Schematic drawing of a open cooling tower and an evaporative condenser....91
2.103 Relationship water and air's wet bulb temperature in a cooling tower ............92
2.104 Psycrometric analysis of air passing through a cooling tower...........................92
3.1 Primary energy factor as function of COP.............................................................99
3.2 Schematic Photovoltaic-air-conditioning systems...............................................101
3.3 Schematic heat driven solar air-conditioning systems.........................................103
3.4 COP, collector efficiency and COPsol as func. of operation temperature.............104
3.5 Duplex Rankine cycle solar air-conditioning system...........................................105
3.6 Schematic high efficient solar cooling plant as suggested by Gordon (2000).....107
3.7 Schematic Rankine heat-engine absorption-chiller cycle hybrid.........................107
3.8 Schematic solar driven desiccant cooling system................................................108
3.9 Pennington all-desiccant cycle. Schematic and in a Mollier chart .....................109


هذه بعض من محتويات الكتاب اذا عجبك حمل وإلا صلي على خير البشر وادعيلي



:3:

Solar Air-Conditioning


 

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md beida

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مشكور يا اخي بصراحة المنشورات في المجال تتسم بقلتها وانا ابحث عنها ايضا لذا سوف اجدد طلبك لعل
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