تحميل كتاب Vehicle Dynamics and Control

الحالة
مغلق و غير مفتوح للمزيد من الردود.

عبد السبوح

عضو جديد
إنضم
12 يونيو 2007
المشاركات
213
مجموع الإعجابات
4
النقاط
0




Vehicle Dynamics and
Control


(e - book)

by:
Rajesh Rajamani
University of Minnesota, USA
Editor-in-Chief
Frederick F. Ling
Earnest F. Gloyna Regents Chair Emeritus in Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Texas at Austin


Distinguished


William Howard Hart
Professor Emeritus
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA


VehicleDynamicsAndControl.jpg



معلومات عن الكتاب من موقع امازون

Book Description


Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction estimation. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically.
The use of feedback control systems on automobiles is growing rapidly. This book is intended to serve as a useful resource to researchers who work on the development of such control systems, both in the automotive industry and at universities. The book can also serve as a textbook for a graduate level course on vehicle dynamics and control.



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Product Details


Hardcover: 471 pages
Publisher: Springer; 1 edition (October 31, 2005)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0387263969
ISBN-13: 978-0387263960
Product Dimensions: 9.1 x 6.2 x 1.3 inches
Shipping Weight: 2.1 pounds


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محتويات الكتاب

Dedication
Preface
Acknowledgments
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Driver Assistance Systems
1.2 Active Stability Control Systems
1.3 Ride Quality
1.4 Technologies for Addressing Traffic Congestion
1.4.1 Automated highway systems
1.4.2 Traffic friendly adaptive cruise control
1.4.3 Narrow tilt-controlled comuuter vehicles
1.5 Emissions and Fuel Economy
1.5.1 Hybrid electric vehicles
1 .5.2 Fuel cell vehicles



VEHICLE DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
References 11
2. LATERAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS 15
2.1 Lateral Systems Under Commercial Development 15
2.1.1 Lane departure warning 16
2.1.2 Lane keeping systems 17
2.1.3 Yaw stability control systems 18
2.2 Kinematic Model of Lateral Vehicle Motion 20
2.3 Bicycle Model of Lateral Vehicle Dynamics 27
2.4 Motion of Particle Relative to a rotating Frame 3 3
2.5 Dynamic Model in Terms of Error with Respect to Road 3 5
2.6 Dynamic Model in Terms of Yaw Rate and Slip Angle 3 9
2.7 From Body-Fixed to Global Coordinates 4 1
2.8 Road Model 43
2.9 Chapter Summary 46
Nomenclature 47
References 48
3. STEERING CONTROL FOR AUTOMATED LANE KEEPING 5 1
3.1 State Feedback 5 1
3.2 Steady State Error from Dynamic Equations 5 5
3.3 Understanding Steady State Cornering 5 9
3.3.1 Steering angle for steady state cornering 5 9
3.3.2 Can the yaw angle error be zero? 64


xii
*******s
3.3.3 Is non-zero yaw error a concern?
3.4 Consideration of Varying Longitudinal Velocity
3.5 Output Feedback
3.6 Unity feedback Loop System
3.7 Loop Analysis with a Proportional Controller
3.8 Loop Analysis with a Lead Compensator
3.9 Simulation of Performance with Lead Compensator
3.10 Analysis if Closed-Loop Performance
3.10.1 Performance variation with vehicle speed
3.10.2 Performance variation with sensor location 86
3.1 1 Compensator Design with Look-Ahead Sensor Measurement 88
3.12 Chapter Summary 90
Nomenclature 90
References 92
4. LONGITUDINAL VEHICLE DYNAMICS 95
4.1 Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics 95
4.1.1 Aerodynamic drag force 97
4.1.2 Longitudinal tire force 99
4.1.3 Why does longitudinal tire force depend on slip? 101
4.1.4 Rolling resistance 104
4.1.5 Calculation of normal tire forces 106
4.1.6 Calculation of effective tire radius 108


xiii
VEHICLE DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
4.2 Driveline Dynamics 111
4.2.1 Torque converter 112
4.2.2 Transmission dynamics 114
4.2.3 Engine dynamics 116
4.2.4 Wheel dynamics 118
4.3 Chapter Summary 120
Nomenclature 120
References 122
5. INTRODUCTION TO LONGITUDINAL CONTROL 123
5.1 Introduction 123
5.1.1 Adaptive cruise control 124
5.1.2 Collision avoidance 125
5.1.3 Automated highway systems 125
5.2 Benefits of Longitudinal Automation 126
5.3 Cruise Control 128
5.4 Upper Level Controller for Cruise Control 130
5.5 Lower Level for Cruise Control 133
5.5.1 Engine torque calculation for desired acceleration 134
5.5.2 Engine control 137
5.6 Anti-Lock Brake Systems 137
5.6.1 Motivation 137
5.6.2 ABS functions 141


xiv
*******s
5.6.3 Deceleration threshold based algorithms 142
5.6.4 Other logic based ABS control systems 146
5.6.5 Recent research publications on ABS 148
5.7 Chapter Summary 148
Nomenclature 149
References 150
6. ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL 153
6.1 Introduction 153
6.2 Vehicle Following Specifications 155
6.3 Control Architecture 156
6.4 String Stability 158
6.5 Autonomous Control with Constant Spacing 159
6.6 Autonomous Control with the Constant Time-Gap Policy 162
6.6.1 String stability of the CTG spacing policy 164
6.6.2 Typical delay values 167
6.7 Transitional Trajectories 169
6.7.1 The need for a transitional controller 169
6.7.2 Transitional controller design through R - R diagrams 172
6.8 Lower Level Controller 178
6.9 Chapter Summary 180
Nomenclature 180
References 18 1


xv
VEHICLE DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
Appendix 6.A 183
7. LONGITUDINAL CONTROL FOR VEHICLE PLATOONS 187
7.1 Automated Highway Systems 187
7.2 Vehicle Control on Automated Highway Systems 188
7.3 Longitudinal Control Architecture 189
7.4 Vehicle Following Specifications 191
7.5 Background on Norms of Signals and Systems 193
7.5.1 Norms of signals 193
7.5.2 System norms 194
7.5.3 Use of system norms to study signal amplification 195
7.6 Design Approach for Ensuring String Stability 198
7.7 Constant Spacing with Autonomous Control 200
7.8 Constant Spacing with Wireless Communication 203
7.9 Experimental Results 206
7.10 Lower Level Controller 208
7.1 1 Adaptive Controller for Unknown Vehicle Parameters 209
7.1 1.1 Redefined notation 209
7.1 1.2 Adaptive controller 21 1
7.12 Chapter Summary 214
Nomenclature 215
References 216
Appendix 7.A 218
xvi
xi *******s
8. ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL 22 1
8.1 Introduction 22 1
8.1.1 The functioning of a stability control system 22 1
8.1.2 Systems developed by automotive manufacturers 223
8.1.3 Types of stability control systems 223
8.2 Differential Braking Systems 224
8.2.1 Vehicle model 224
8.2.2 Control architecture 229
8.2.3 Desired yaw rate 230
8.2.4 Desired side-slip angle 23 1
8.2.5 Upper bounded values of target yaw rate and slip angle 233
8.2.6 Upper controller design 235
8.2.7 Lower Controller design 23 8
8.3 Steer-By-Wire Systems 240
8.3.1 Introduction 240
8.3.2 Choice of output for decoupling 24 1
8.3.3 Controller design 244
8.4 Independent All Wheel Drive Torque Distribution 247
8.4.1 Traditional four wheel drive systems 247
8.4.2 Torque transfer between left and right wheels 248
8.4.3 Active control of torque transfer to all wheels 249
8.5 Chapter Summary 25 1
xvii
VEHICLE DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
Nomeclature 252
References 255
9. MEAN VALUE MODELING OF SI AND DIESEL ENGINES 257
9.1 SI Engine Model Using Parametric Equations 25 8
9.1.1 Engine rotational dynamics 259
9.1.2 Indicated combustion torque 260
9.1.3 Friction and pumping losses 26 1
9.1.4 Manifold pressure equation 262
9.1.5 Outflow rate from intake manifold 263
9.1.6 Inflow rate into intake manifold 263
9.2 SI Engine Model Using Look-Up Maps 265
9.2.1 Introduction to engine maps 266
9.2.2 Second order engine model using engine maps 270
9.2.3 First order engine model using engine maps 27 1
9.3 Introduction to Turbocharged Diesel Engine Maps 27 3
9.4 Mean Value Modeling of Turbocharged Diesel Engines 274
9.4.1 Intake manifold dynamics 275
9.4.2 Exhaust manifold dynamics 275
9.4.3 Turbocharger dynamics 276
9.4.4 Engine crankshaft dynamics 277
9.4.5 Control system objectives 27 8
9.5 Lower Level Controller with SI Engines 279
xviii
*******s
9.6 Chapter Summary
Nomenclature
References
10. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE AUTOMOTIVE
SUSPENSIONS
10.1 Introduction to Automotive Suspensions
10.1.1 Full, half and quarter car suspension models
10.1.2 Suspension functions
10.1.3 Dependent and independent suspensions
10.2 Modal Decoupling
10.3 Performance Variables for a Quarter Car Suspension
10.4 Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes for the Quarter Car
10.5 Approximate Transfer Functions Using Decoupling
10.6 Analysis of Vibrations in the Sprung Mass Mode
10.7 Analysis of Vibrations in the Unsprung Mass Mode
10.8 Verification Using the Complete Quarter Model
10.8.1 Verification of the influence of suspension stiffness
10.8.2 Verification of the influence of suspension damping
10.8.3 Verification of the influence of tire stiffness
10.9 Half-Car and Full-Car Suspension Models
10.10 Chapter Summary
Nomenclature
References
xix
VEHICLE DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
1 1. ACTIVE AUTOMOTIVE SUSPENSIONS 325
11.1 Introduction 325
11.2 Active Control: Trade-offs and Limitations 328
1 1.2.1 Transfer functions of interest 328
1 1.2.2 Use of the LQR Formulation and its relation to
H2 Optimal Control 328
11.2.3 LQR formulation for active suspension design 330
11.2.4 Performance studies of the LQR controller 332
1 1.3 Active System Asymptotes 339
1 1.4 Invariant Points and Their Influence on the Suspension
Problem 34 1
1 1.5 Analysis of Trade-offs Using Invariant Points 343
1 1.5.1 Ride quality1 road holding trade-offs 344
11 S.2 Ride quality1 rattle space trade-offs 345
1 1.6 Conclusions on Achievable Active System Performance 346
11.7 Performanceof a Simple Velocity Feedback Controller 348
11.8 Hydraulic Actuators for Active Suspensions 350
1 1.9 Chapter Summary 352
Nomenclature 353
References 354
12. SEMI-ACTIVE SUSPENSIONS 357
12.1 Introduction 357
12.2 Semi-Active Suspension Model 359
xx
*******s
12.3 Theoretical Results: Optimal Semi-Active Suspensions
12.3.1 Problem formulation
12.3.2 Problem definition
12.3.3 Optimal solution with no constraints on damping
12.3.4 Optimal solution in the presence of constraints
12.4 Interpretation of the Optimal Semi-Active Control Law
12.5 Simulation Results
12.6 Calculation of Transfer Function Plots with Semi-Active
Suspensions
12.7 Performance of Semi-Active Suspension Systems
12.7.1 Moderately weighted ride quality
12.7.2 Sky hook damping
12.8 Chapter Summary
Nomenclature
References
13. LATERAL AND LONGITUDINAL TIRE FORCES
13.1 Tire Forces
13.2 Tire Structure
13.3 Longitudinal Tire Force at Small Slip Ratios
13.4 Lateral Tire Force at Small Slip Angles
13.5 Introduction to the Magic Formula Tire Model
13.6 Development of Lateral Tire Model for Uniform Normal
Force Distribution
xxi
VEHICLE DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
13.6.1 Lateral forces at small slip angles 402
13.6.2 Lateral forces at large slip angles 405
13.7 Development of Lateral Tire Model for Parabolic Normal
Pressure Distribution 409
13.8 Combined Lateral and Longitudinal Tire Force Generation 4 17
13.9 The Magic Formula Tire Model 42 1
13.10 Dugoff's Tire Model 425
13.10.1 Introduction 425
13.10.2 Model equations 426
13.10.3 Friction Circle Interpretation of Dugoff's Model 427
13.1 1 Dynamic Tire Model 429
13.12 Chapter Summary 430
Nomenclature 430
References 432
14. TIRE-ROAD FRICTION MEASUREMENT ON HIGHWAY
VEHICLES 433
14.1 Introduction 433
14.1.1 Definition of tire-road friction coefficient 433
14.1.2 Benefits of tire-road friction estimation 434
14.1.3 Review of results on tire-road friction coefficient
estimation 435
14.1.4 Review of results on slip-slope based approach to friction
estimation 436
14.2 Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics and Tire Model for Friction
Estimation 438
xxii
*******s
14.2.1 Vehicle longitudinal dynamics
14.2.2 Determination of the normal force
14.2.3 Tire model
14.2.4 Friction coefficient estimation for both traction
and braking
14.3 Summary of Longitudinal Friction identification Approach
14.4 Identification Algorithm Design
14.4.1 Recursive least-squares (RLS) identification
14.4.2 RLS with gain switching
14.4.3 Conditions for parameter updates
14.5 Estimation of Accelerometer Bias
14.6 Experimental Results
14.6.1 System hardware and software
14.6.2 Tests on dry concrete surface
14.6.3 Tests on concrete surface with loose snow covering
14.6.4 Tests on surface consisting of two different friction
levels
14.6.5 Hard braking test
14.7 Chapter Summary
Nomenclature
References
Index
xxiii
Acknowledgments
-----------------------------------------------

Vehicle Dynamics and
Control


21.6 MB


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