التحكم الرقمى بإستخدام الحاسب (cnc)

مهاجر

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم​

هذا الموضوع تعريف مبدئي بهندسة التحكم الرقمي بإستخدام الحاسب ... منقول من الموسوعة الحرة (ويكيبيديا)
الأخ محمد إسماعيل
نحتاج أن نجتهد لتعريب الألفاظ والمقال.


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The abbreviation CNC stands for Computer Numerical
Control, and refers specifically to the computer control of machine tools for the purpose of (repeatedly) manufacturing complex parts in metal as well as other materials, using a program written in a notation conforming to the EIA-274-D standard and commonly called G-code. CNC was developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s by the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory. CNC machines were relatively briefly preceded by the less advanced NC, or Numerical(ly) Control(led), machines.

Description

The introduction of CNC machines radically changed the manufacturing industry. Curves are as easy to cut as straight lines, complex 3-D structures are relatively easy to produce, and the number of machining steps that required human action have been dramatically reduced.

With the increased automation of manufacturing processes with CNC machining, considerable improvements in consistency and quality have been achieved. CNC automation reduced the frequency of errors and provided CNC operators with time to perform additional tasks. CNC automation also allows for more flexibility in the way parts are held in the manufacturing process and the time required to change the machine to produce different components.

In a production environment, a series of CNC machines may be combined into one station, commonly called a "cell", to progressively machine a part requiring several operations. CNC machines today are controlled directly from files created by CAM software packages, so that a part or assembly can go directly from design to manufacturing without the need of producing a drafted paper drawing of the manufactured component. In a sense, the CNC machines represent a special segment of industrial robot systems, as they are programmable to perform many kinds of machining operations (within their designed physical limits, like other robotic systems).​
 

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Basic ISO CNC Code
M03, M04, M05 Spindle CW, Spindle CCW, Spindle Stop

M08, M09 Coolant/lubricant on, Coolant/lubricant off
M30 Reset
M99 Program end
M00, M01 Program stop, optional stop

G96, G97 Constant surface speed, Constant Spindle speed
G50 Maximum spindle speed
G18, G19 Feed mm pr revolvation, feed mm/min
G00, G01 rapid movement, Programed feed

F Feed
S Spindle Speed

direction Coordinats X Y Z A B C



Example of a simple CNC lathe program


the stock and the part the program producesO1234
G50 S2000
G96 S300 M03
G00 T0606 (ROUGHT TURN TOOL)
G18 X37. Z0.
G01 X-1. F0.2
Z1.
G00 X30.
G01 Z-20.
X33.
X35. Z-21.
Z-25.
X37.
G00 X150. Z300.
M01
T0101 (18MM DRILL)
G97 S1000
G19 M03
X0. Z5.
G01 Z-25. F100
G00 Z5.
X150. Z300.
M05
M30

1555_1144937141.jpg
 
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السلام عليكم ورحمه الله وبركاته كيف حالك يا اخى
إنشاء الله سوف اقوم على ترجمه هذا المقال وطرحه
والله المستعان
 

مهاجر

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Example of a simple CNC milling program

A simple example might be a 4" x 2" rectangle. The basic code might read something like:

---------------------------------

N1X0Y0T01
N2X0Y2000
N3X4000Y2000
N4X4000Y0
N5X0Y0
N6M00

----------------------------------

Line 1 (N1) tells the machine to traverse to grid point X0Y0 and to pick tool #1
Line 2 tells the machine to traverse to grid point X0Y2.000
Line 3 tells the machine to travel to grid point X4.000Y2.000
Line 4 tells the machine to travel to grid point X4.000Y0
Line 5 returns the machine to origin
Line 6 stops the machine
Note that the program does nothing to define the tool cutting path. If the machine is a router and uses a 1/8" radius cutter, the actual part will end up 1/4" smaller than designed (1/8" per side). To compensate, a G-code command (in this case) may be used to adjust the tool path.

----------------------------------------
N1G44M0125
N2X0Y0T01
N3X0Y2000
N4X4000Y2000
N5X4000Y0
N6X0Y0
N7M00
---------------------------------------

In this case, the controller sees the first line and adjusts the location of the cutter to .125 (or 1/8") to the outside of the cutting profile. Now the machine will make a part that matches the one designed. Depending on the cutting tool, the compensation can be set as needed. For example, a laser with a very fine beam might have a compensation of .005", while a waterjet with a .060 inside tip diameter may need a compensation of .030.

1555_1144937540.jpg
 

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Tools with CNC variants

Drills
EDMs
Lathes
Milling machines
Wood routers
Sheetmetal works
Hot-wire foam cutters​
 

salah_k1

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مشكرو جدا جدا
ارجو منك المزيد
 

مهاجر

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Computer-aided design

Computer-aided design​

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of a wide range of computer-based tools that assist engineers, architects and other design professionals in their design activities. It is the main geometry authoring tool within the Product Lifecycle Management process and involves both software and sometimes special-purpose hardware. Current packages range from 2D vector based drafting systems to 3D parametric surface and solid design modellers.

1555_1144939824.jpg



CAD is sometimes translated as "computer-assisted", "computer-aided drafting", or a similar phrase. Related acronyms are CADD, which stands for "computer-aided design and drafting", CAID for Computer-aided Industrial Design and CAAD, for "computer-aided architectural design". All these terms are essentially synonymous, but there are some subtle differences in meaning and application.

Introduction

1555_1144939934.jpg


CAD is used to design and develop products, which can be goods used by end consumers or intermediate goods used in other products. CAD is also extensively used in the design of tools and machinery used in the manufacture of components. CAD is also used in the drafting and design of all types of buildings, from small residential types (houses) to the largest commercial and industrial types (hospitals and factories).
CAD is used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and layout, through detailed engineering and analysis of components to definition of manufacturing methods.

Fields of use

Architecture, Engineering and Construction - the "AEC industry"
Building engineering
Mechanical (MCAD)
Automotive
Aerospace
Consumer Goods
Machinery
Ship Building
Electronic and Electrical (ECAD)
Manufacturing process planning
Digital circuit design
Software applications


-------------------------------------------------
Electrical and electronic
Electronic design automation (EDA) includes PCB design, intelligent wiring diagrams (routing) and component connection management.


Manufacturing process planning
2D and 3D CAD systems are sometimes used for graphically represented of plant layout, usually with the aid of specific machine geometry libraries and layout tools. Although this is often done with specialist real-time process simulation tools based on Product visualization and Manufacturing Process Management technologies.


Software applications
Computer-aided design software is also starting to be used to develop software applications. Software applications share many of the same Product Life Cycle attributes as the manufacturing or electronic markets. As computer software becomes more complicated and harder to update and change, it is becoming essential to develop interactive prototypes or simulations of the software before doing any coding. The benefits of simulation before writing actual code cuts down significantly on re-work and bugs.​
 
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ترجمه المقال

اخى مهاجر انا اعتزر على التأخير فى ترجمه المقال وهذا لضيق الوقت
ولو فى شيئ مش مفهوم فى المقال انا تحت امرك فى شرحه إن شاء الله


يُؤيّدُ المُخْتَصرُ سي إن سي التحكم العددى باستخدام الحاسوب
ويُحيلُ بشكل مُحدّد إلى سيطرةِ حاسوبَ الآلات المكنيةِ لغرضِ (مراراً وتكراراً) تصنيع أجزاءِ معقّدةِ في المعدنِ بالإضافة إلى الموادِ الأخرى، إستعمال a برنامج كَتبَ في a ترقيم يَتوافقُ إلى وكالة معلومات الطاقةِ -274-D معيار وعموماً مسمّى جي رمز. سي إن سي طُوّرَ في أواخر الأربعيناتِ وأوائِل الخمسيناتِ بمختبرِ إم آي تي Servomechanisms. مكائن سي إن سي سُبِقتْ نسبياً سريعاً مِن قِبل أقل تَقدّمتْ إن سي، أَو عددية (ly) سيطرة (قادتْ)، مكائن.

الوصف

غيّرتْ مقدمةُ مكائنِ سي إن سي قطاع صناعي بشكل جذري. الأقواس كسهلة للقَطْع كخطوط مستقيمة، مركّب -D 3 تراكيبِ سهلة نسبياً لإنْتاج، ويُثبّتُ عددَ machining ذلك العملِ الإنسانيِ المطلوبِ خُفّضَ بشكل مثير.

بالأتمتةِ المتزايدةِ لتصنيع العملياتِ مَع سي إن سي machining، تحسينات كبيرة في الإتساقِ والنوعيةِ أُنجزا. خفّضتْ أتمتةُ سي إن سي تردد الأخطاءِ وزوّدتْ مشغلي سي إن سي بالوقتِ لإداء المهامِ الإضافيةِ. تَسْمحُ أتمتةُ سي إن سي للمرونةِ الأكثرِ أيضاً في أجزاءِ الطريقَ مَحْمُولة في عمليةِ التصنيع والوقتَ تَطلّبا لتَغيير الماكنةِ لإنْتاج مكوّناتِ مختلفةِ.

في a بيئة إنتاجِ , a سلسلة مكائنِ سي إن سي قَدْ تُدْمَجُ إلى محطةِ واحدة، عموماً مسمّاة a "خلية"، إلى بتقدم تدريجي ماكنةِ a جزء الذي يَتطلّبُ عِدّة عمليات. مكائن سي إن سي اليوم مسيطرة عليها مباشرة مِنْ الملفاتِ خَلقتْ بمجموعةِ برامج الحدبةِ، لكي a جزء أَو جمعية يُمْكِنُ أَنْ يَذْهبا مباشرة مِنْ التصميمِ للصِناعَة بدون حاجةِ منتجِ a صاغا رسم ورقيَ مِنْ المكوّنِ المصنّعِ. بمعنى، مكائن سي إن سي تُمثّلُ a قطعة خاصّة مِنْ الأنظمةِ الآليّةِ الصناعيةِ، بينما هم قابل للبرمجة لإداء العديد مِنْ أنواعِ
عملياتِ machining (ضمن حدودِهم الطبيعيةِ المُصَمَّمةِ، مثل الأنظمةِ الآليةِ الأخرى).




مهاجر قال:
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم​


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The abbreviation CNC stands for Computer Numerical
Control, and refers specifically to the computer control of machine tools for the purpose of (repeatedly) manufacturing complex parts in metal as well as other materials, using a program written in a notation conforming to the EIA-274-D standard and commonly called G-code. CNC was developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s by the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory. CNC machines were relatively briefly preceded by the less advanced NC, or Numerical(ly) Control(led), machines.

Description

The introduction of CNC machines radically changed the manufacturing industry. Curves are as easy to cut as straight lines, complex 3-D structures are relatively easy to produce, and the number of machining steps that required human action have been dramatically reduced.

With the increased automation of manufacturing processes with CNC machining, considerable improvements in consistency and quality have been achieved. CNC automation reduced the frequency of errors and provided CNC operators with time to perform additional tasks. CNC automation also allows for more flexibility in the way parts are held in the manufacturing process and the time required to change the machine to produce different components.

In a production environment, a series of CNC machines may be combined into one station, commonly called a "cell", to progressively machine a part requiring several operations. CNC machines today are controlled directly from files created by CAM software packages, so that a part or assembly can go directly from design to manufacturing without the need of producing a drafted paper drawing of the manufactured component. In a sense, the CNC machines represent a special segment of industrial robot systems, as they are programmable to perform many kinds of machining operations (within their designed physical limits, like other robotic systems).​
 
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ahmad_gsm

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شكرااااااااااا اخي العزيز على هذة المعلومات القيمة
 
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بجد نعجز عن الرد او الشكر عن الجهد المبذول فا اكيد قد اخذ منك هذا وقتا كبيرا فبارك الله لك فى وقتك واعلم اننا نقدر هذا جيدا ونتتمنى لك التوفيق لانك من الشخصيات فعلن التى تحب ان يعم الخيرللجميع
 

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